Australian Mungbean Association
Australian-grown mungbeans have quality written all over them!
Many of the countries that compete with Australia in the international mungbean market use traditional farming methods and hand-harvest their mungbeans. Although labour-intensive, hand-harvesting results in a grain product with exceptional seed quality. Australian mungbeans are sold against hand-harvested product; so to compete effectively, the Australian industry has developed varieties and management practices that enable the production of high-quality mungbeans under mechanised production systems.
Marketing of your mungbeans and choice of variety go hand-in-hand as the first steps in integrating mungbeans into your farming system.
Mungbean (Vigna radiata) – In the pulse industry, the term ‘mungbean’ refers to mainly green-seeded types with pods borne toward the top of the plant.
Black gram (Vigna mungo) – Black gram is a closely related species to mungbean, but with dull grey-black seeds, and pods borne throughout the bush. It is relatively more difficult to harvest as pods are set lower on the plant and maturity is often uneven.
Opal-AU is a significant step forward in foliar disease resistance for the Australian mungbean industry. It offers the best available package of protection from the seedborne bacterial disease halo blight and from the fungal disease powdery mildew. Opal-AU complements existing varieties in terms of yield, regional adaptation and suitability for export markets.
For growers on the Eastern Downs and in New South Wales Opal-AU provides improved yield performance and improved resistance to foliar disease over Jade-AU. In the Callide-Dawson region Opal-AU has yielded equivalent to Jade-AU and slightly higher than Crystal. Opal-AU was lower yielding than Jade-AU at Warra on the Western Downs and also in the Central Highlands.
Opal-AU has good early vigour, strong vegetative growth, an erect plant type and excellent harvestability. It retains green leaf up to physiological maturity and spray-out. Plant type and production agronomy are equivalent to current large-seeded varieties. Grain size of Opal-AU is intermediate between Jade- AU and Berken. See Opal-AU Variety Management Package.
Onyx-AU is a black gram (Vigna mungo), which is a different species from mungbean (also known as green gram, scientific name Vigna radiata). Black gram has distinctly different biology, production and markets.
Black gram is supplied into a niche market for Australian growers. Since the release of Regur in 1975, Australian growers have only had a single black gram variety to access this niche market. See Onyx-AU Variety Management Package.
Jade-AU is a large seeded bright green mungbean that is broadly adapted to the northern region. It is suitable for both ‘spring planting’ (Sept/early Oct) and ‘conventional summer planting’ (Dec/Jan).
It has a demonstrated consistent yield increase of 12% when compared to Crystal across all regions of central and southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. It has grain quality equivalent to Crystal and is highly acceptable in the market place.
Jade-AU has the best available combined suite of resistance to powdery mildew (greater than Crystal), tan spot and halo blight (ratings are equivalent to Crystal).
Jade-AU is of an equivalent plant type and has similar production agronomy to Crystal and other current varieties. See Jade-AU Variety Management Package.
Crystal was released by the National Mungbean Improvement Program under licence to the Australian Mungbean Association in 2008, and is protected by PBR. Crystal is a large seeded, shiny green mungbean, and is a cross between White Gold, Emerald and other breeding lines.
Crystal is a consistent performer in all regions. Across five years of regional testing, it averaged 20% higher yields than Emerald. It offers significant advances in grain quality. Crystal is a relatively tall, erect variety with similar lodging resistance to Emerald. It has the best available suite of resistance to powdery mildew, tan spot and halo blight. Crystal has low levels of hard seed, increasing its attractiveness to the cooking and processing markets.
Crystal has widespread regional adaptation and is suitable for both spring planting (September/early October) due to its weathering ability and conventional summer planting (December/January) due to its level of powdery mildew resistance. See Crystal Variety Management Package.
Celera II-AU is a small seeded shiny mungbean variety that combines the superior quality of Celera, preferred by the small seeded market, with the best available halo blight resistance. It has been released as a direct replacement for the two small seeded varieties, Green Diamond and Celera.
Small shiny green mungbean has a limited market volume and growers are advised to consult their marketer prior to planting. They are grown for niche markets in many European and Asian countries and some splitters and millers also prefer them.
Celera II-AU has the best available resistance to halo blight (Moderately Resistant [MR]) and offers greater yield stability under high disease pressure. Its reaction to powdery mildew and tan spot is Susceptible (MS) and Moderately Susceptible (MS) respectively.
Satin II was released by the National Mungbean Improvement Program under licence to the Australian Mungbean Association in 2008. It is protected by PBR. Satin II is a dull green mungbean grown for a niche market. It has superior seed quality with increased seed size and improved evenness of seed colour, size and shape.
Satin II can out-yield Satin by 20% and offers improved disease resistance to both powdery mildew and tan spot. It also has improved lodging resistance but similar maturity to Satin.
Seed segregation and varietal integrity are crucial if growing two or more different mungbean varieties. Varietal mixtures are unacceptable in the market place, and mixtures of shiny and dull seeded mungbeans would greatly reduce the value. See Satin II Variety Management Package.
Regur is a dark grey seed that is more tolerant to waterlogging than the mungbean varieties. It is often more difficult to harvest as it is usually shorter growing than mungbeans, pods are also set lower on the bush and it flowers over a prolonged period, ripening unevenly. Regur can make excessive vegetative growth under favourable growing conditions, and is prone to lodging.
Nodulation is often a problem with Regur, and the crop can be responsive to nitrogen fertiliser. There is strong demand for high-quality Regur beans for export to Japan. There are a number of grading sheds and grain traders specialising in the marketing of Regur. Growers contemplating Regur must ensure effective segregation of black and green seeded mungbeans in the paddock, the header and in storage as mixed seed lots cannot be sorted and will be difficult to market.
Regur is not recommended in Central Queensland, where plants grow very short, and delayed maturity limits yield.